mal - Make a Lisp
Joel Martin 60e3f6fd6b
Merge pull request #353 from bjh21/bjh21-minor-fixes
3 days ago
ada Ada: fix accidental build breakage. 1 month ago
ada.2 ada.2: fix memory leaks with garbage collection. Various simplifications. 3 weeks ago
awk Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
bash Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
basic Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
c Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
chuck Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
clojure Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
coffee Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
common-lisp Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
cpp Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
crystal Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
cs Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
d Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
dart Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
docs FAQ: answer bang/star question. Misc cleanup/updates. 3 weeks ago
elisp Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
elixir Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
elm Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
erlang Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
es6 Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
examples Fix a number of typos in documentation/comments. 1 year ago
factor Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
fantom Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
forth Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
fsharp Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
gnu-smalltalk Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
go Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
groovy Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
guile Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
haskell Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
haxe Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
hy Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
io Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
java Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
js Move web files into docs/. Build docs/web/mal.js 1 month ago
julia Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
kotlin Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
livescript Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
logo Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
lua Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
make Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
mal Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
matlab Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
miniMAL Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
nasm Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
nim Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
objc Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
objpascal Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
ocaml Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
perl Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
perl6 Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
php Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
picolisp Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
plpgsql Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
plsql Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
powershell Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
process Guide: when introducing read_atom, don't mention complex types. 4 days ago
ps Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
python Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
r Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
racket Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
rexx Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
rpython Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
ruby Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
rust Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
scala Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
scheme Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
skew Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
swift Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
swift3 Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
swift4 Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
tcl Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
tests Step 6: Make tests of '*ARGV*' deferrable. 4 days ago
ts Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
vb Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
vhdl Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
vimscript Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
wasm wasm: wax runtime. Use WASI preopen process. 5 days ago
yorick Convert to loccount based stats calculation. 1 month ago
.gitignore wasm: update to 2019 wat syntax, use .wat extension 3 months ago
.gitmodules JS: switch from josh.js console to jqconsole. 5 years ago
.travis.yml wasm: wax runtime. Use WASI preopen process. 5 days ago
.travis_build.sh Fix IMPL variables in travis scripts. 1 year ago
.travis_test.sh Fix IMPL variables in travis scripts. 1 year ago
LICENSE Fix a number of typos in documentation/comments. 1 year ago
Makefile wasm: Support/add wasmtime runtime. WASI platform. 1 week ago
README.md wasm: wax runtime. Use WASI preopen process. 5 days ago
core.mal Basic: add read-file. Misc basicpp space savings. 2 years ago
perf.mal perf: more accurate iter count (last-iters). 9 months ago
run_argv_test.sh Basic: fix step6 arg test. Gensym. Misc cleanup. 2 years ago
runtest-old.py runtest.py: order of magnitude faster. 4 years ago
runtest.py Runtest should fail on bad test data. Fix interop tests. 2 months ago

README.md

mal - Make a Lisp

Build Status

Description

1. Mal is a Clojure inspired Lisp interpreter

2. Mal is implemented in 75 languages (76 implementations total)

Language Creator
Ada Chris Moore
Ada #2 Nicolas Boulenguez
GNU Awk Miutsuru Kariya
Bash 4 Joel Martin
BASIC (C64 & QBasic) Joel Martin
C Joel Martin
C++ Stephen Thirlwall
C# Joel Martin
ChucK Vasilij Schneidermann
Clojure (Clojure & ClojureScript) Joel Martin
CoffeeScript Joel Martin
Common Lisp Iqbal Ansari
Crystal Linda_pp
D Dov Murik
Dart Harry Terkelsen
Elixir Martin Ek
Elm Jos van Bakel
Emacs Lisp Vasilij Schneidermann
Erlang Nathan Fiedler
ES6 (ECMAScript 2015) Joel Martin
F# Peter Stephens
Factor Jordan Lewis
Fantom Dov Murik
Forth Chris Houser
GNU Guile Mu Lei
GNU Smalltalk Vasilij Schneidermann
Go Joel Martin
Groovy Joel Martin
Haskell Joel Martin
Haxe (Neko, Python, C++, & JS) Joel Martin
Hy Joel Martin
Io Dov Murik
Java Joel Martin
JavaScript (Demo) Joel Martin
Julia Joel Martin
Kotlin Javier Fernandez-Ivern
LiveScript Jos van Bakel
Logo Dov Murik
Lua Joel Martin
GNU Make Joel Martin
mal itself Joel Martin
MATLAB (GNU Octave & MATLAB) Joel Martin
miniMAL (Repo, Demo) Joel Martin
NASM Ben Dudson
Nim Dennis Felsing
Object Pascal Joel Martin
Objective C Joel Martin
OCaml Chris Houser
Perl Joel Martin
Perl 6 Hinrik Örn Sigurðsson
PHP Joel Martin
Picolisp Vasilij Schneidermann
PL/pgSQL (Postgres) Joel Martin
PL/SQL (Oracle) Joel Martin
PostScript Joel Martin
PowerShell Joel Martin
Python (2.X & 3.X) Joel Martin
RPython Joel Martin
R Joel Martin
Racket Joel Martin
Rexx Dov Murik
Ruby Joel Martin
Rust Joel Martin
Scala Joel Martin
Scheme (R7RS) Vasilij Schneidermann
Skew Dov Murik
Swift 2 Keith Rollin
Swift 3 Joel Martin
Swift 4 陆遥
Tcl Dov Murik
TypeScript Masahiro Wakame
VHDL Dov Murik
Vimscript Dov Murik
Visual Basic.NET Joel Martin
WebAssembly (wasm) Joel Martin
Yorick Dov Murik

3. Mal is a learning tool

Each implementation of mal is separated into 11 incremental, self-contained (and testable) steps that demonstrate core concepts of Lisp. The last step is capable of self-hosting (running the mal implementation of mal). See the make-a-lisp process guide.

The make-a-lisp steps are:

Each make-a-lisp step has an associated architectural diagram. That elements that are new for that step are highlighted in red. Here is the final diagram for step A:

stepA_mal architecture

If you are interesting in creating a mal implementation (or just interested in using mal for something), please drop by the #mal channel on freenode. In addition to the make-a-lisp process guide there is also a mal/make-a-lisp FAQ where I attempt to answer some common questions.

Presentations

Mal was presented publicly for the first time in a lightning talk at Clojure West 2014 (unfortunately there is no video). See examples/clojurewest2014.mal for the presentation that was given at the conference (yes, the presentation is a mal program).

At Midwest.io 2015, Joel Martin gave a presentation on Mal titled "Achievement Unlocked: A Better Path to Language Learning". Video, Slides.

More recently Joel gave a presentation on "Make Your Own Lisp Interpreter in 10 Incremental Steps" at LambdaConf 2016: Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Slides.

Building/running implementations

The simplest way to run any given implementation is to use docker. Every implementation has a docker image pre-built with language dependencies installed. You can launch the REPL using a convenient target in the top level Makefile (where IMPL is the implementation directory name and stepX is the step to run):

make DOCKERIZE=1 "repl^IMPL^stepX"
    # OR stepA is the default step:
make DOCKERIZE=1 "repl^IMPL"

External Implementations

The following implementations are maintained as separate projects:

HolyC

Rust

  • by Tim Morgan
  • by vi - using Pest grammar, not using typical Mal infrastructure (cargo-ized steps and built-in converted tests).

Other mal Projects

  • malc - Mal (Make A Lisp) compiler. Compiles a Mal program to LLVM assembly language, then binary.
  • malcc (@seven1m) - malcc is an incremental compiler implementation for the Mal language. It uses the Tiny C Compiler as the compiler backend and has full support for the Mal language, including macros, tail-call elimination, and even run-time eval. "I Built a Lisp Compiler" post about the process.
  • frock - Clojure-flavoured PHP. Uses mal/php to run programs.

Implementation Details

Ada

The Ada implementation was developed with GNAT 4.9 on debian. It also compiles unchanged on windows if you have windows versions of git, GNAT and (optionally) make. There are no external dependencies (readline not implemented).

cd ada
make
./stepX_YYY

Ada.2

The second Ada implementation was developed with GNAT 8 and links with the GNU readline library.

cd ada
make
./stepX_YYY

GNU awk

The GNU awk implementation of mal has been tested with GNU awk 4.1.1.

cd gawk
gawk -O -f stepX_YYY.awk

Bash 4

cd bash
bash stepX_YYY.sh

BASIC (C64 and QBasic)

The BASIC implementation uses a preprocessor that can generate BASIC code that is compatible with both C64 BASIC (CBM v2) and QBasic. The C64 mode has been tested with cbmbasic (the patched version is currently required to fix issues with line input) and the QBasic mode has been tested with qb64.

Generate C64 code and run it using cbmbasic:

cd basic
make stepX_YYY.bas
STEP=stepX_YYY ./run

Generate QBasic code and load it into qb64:

cd basic
make MODE=qbasic stepX_YYY.bas
./qb64 stepX_YYY.bas

Thanks to Steven Syrek for the original inspiration for this implementation.

C

The C implementation of mal requires the following libraries (lib and header packages): glib, libffi6, libgc, and either the libedit or GNU readline library.

cd c
make
./stepX_YYY

C++

The C++ implementation of mal requires g++-4.9 or clang++-3.5 and a readline compatible library to build. See the cpp/README.md for more details:

cd cpp
make
    # OR
make CXX=clang++-3.5
./stepX_YYY

C#

The C# implementation of mal has been tested on Linux using the Mono C# compiler (mcs) and the Mono runtime (version 2.10.8.1). Both are required to build and run the C# implementation.

cd cs
make
mono ./stepX_YYY.exe

ChucK

The ChucK implementation has been tested with ChucK 1.3.5.2.

cd chuck
./run

Clojure

For the most part the Clojure implementation requires Clojure 1.5, however, to pass all tests, Clojure 1.8.0-RC4 is required.

cd clojure
lein with-profile +stepX trampoline run

CoffeeScript

sudo npm install -g coffee-script
cd coffee
coffee ./stepX_YYY

Common Lisp

The implementation has been tested with SBCL, CCL, CMUCL, GNU CLISP, ECL and Allegro CL on Ubuntu 16.04 and Ubuntu 12.04, see the README for more details. Provided you have the dependencies mentioned installed, do the following to run the implementation

cd common-lisp
make
./run

Crystal

The Crystal implementation of mal has been tested with Crystal 0.26.1.

cd crystal
crystal run ./stepX_YYY.cr
    # OR
make   # needed to run tests
./stepX_YYY

D

The D implementation of mal was tested with GDC 4.8. It requires the GNU readline library.

cd d
make
./stepX_YYY

Dart

The Dart implementation has been tested with Dart 1.20.

cd dart
dart ./stepX_YYY

Emacs Lisp

The Emacs Lisp implementation of mal has been tested with Emacs 24.3 and 24.5. While there is very basic readline editing (<backspace> and C-d work, C-c cancels the process), it is recommended to use rlwrap.

cd elisp
emacs -Q --batch --load stepX_YYY.el
# with full readline support
rlwrap emacs -Q --batch --load stepX_YYY.el

Elixir

The Elixir implementation of mal has been tested with Elixir 1.0.5.

cd elixir
mix stepX_YYY
# Or with readline/line editing functionality:
iex -S mix stepX_YYY

Elm

The Elm implementation of mal has been tested with Elm 0.18.0

cd elm
make stepX_YYY.js
STEP=stepX_YYY ./run

Erlang

The Erlang implementation of mal requires Erlang/OTP R17 and rebar to build.

cd erlang
make
    # OR
MAL_STEP=stepX_YYY rebar compile escriptize # build individual step
./stepX_YYY

ES6 (ECMAScript 2015)

The ES6 / ECMAScript 2015 implementation uses the babel compiler to generate ES5 compatible JavaScript. The generated code has been tested with Node 0.12.4.

cd es6
make
node build/stepX_YYY.js

F#

The F# implementation of mal has been tested on Linux using the Mono F# compiler (fsharpc) and the Mono runtime (version 3.12.1). The mono C# compiler (mcs) is also necessary to compile the readline dependency. All are required to build and run the F# implementation.

cd fsharp
make
mono ./stepX_YYY.exe

Factor

The Factor implementation of mal has been tested with Factor 0.97 (factorcode.org).

cd factor
FACTOR_ROOTS=. factor -run=stepX_YYY

Fantom

The Fantom implementation of mal has been tested with Fantom 1.0.70.

cd fantom
make lib/fan/stepX_YYY.pod
STEP=stepX_YYY ./run

Forth

cd forth
gforth stepX_YYY.fs

GNU Guile 2.1+

cd guile
guile -L ./ stepX_YYY.scm

GNU Smalltalk

The Smalltalk implementation of mal has been tested with GNU Smalltalk 3.2.91.

cd gnu-smalltalk
./run

Go

The Go implementation of mal requires that go is installed on on the path. The implementation has been tested with Go 1.3.1.

cd go
make
./stepX_YYY

Groovy

The Groovy implementation of mal requires Groovy to run and has been tested with Groovy 1.8.6.

cd groovy
make
groovy ./stepX_YYY.groovy

Haskell

The Haskell implementation requires the ghc compiler version 7.10.1 or later and also the Haskell parsec and readline (or editline) packages.

cd haskell
make
./stepX_YYY

Haxe (Neko, Python, C++ and JavaScript)

The Haxe implementation of mal requires Haxe version 3.2 to compile. Four different Haxe targets are supported: Neko, Python, C++, and JavaScript.

cd haxe
# Neko
make all-neko
neko ./stepX_YYY.n
# Python
make all-python
python3 ./stepX_YYY.py
# C++
make all-cpp
./cpp/stepX_YYY
# JavaScript
make all-js
node ./stepX_YYY.js

Hy

The Hy implementation of mal has been tested with Hy 0.13.0.

cd hy
./stepX_YYY.hy

Io

The Io implementation of mal has been tested with Io version 20110905.

cd io
io ./stepX_YYY.io

Java 1.7

The Java implementation of mal requires maven2 to build.

cd java
mvn compile
mvn -quiet exec:java -Dexec.mainClass=mal.stepX_YYY
    # OR
mvn -quiet exec:java -Dexec.mainClass=mal.stepX_YYY -Dexec.args="CMDLINE_ARGS"

JavaScript/Node

cd js
npm update
node stepX_YYY.js

Julia

The Julia implementation of mal requires Julia 0.4.

cd julia
julia stepX_YYY.jl

Kotlin

The Kotlin implementation of mal has been tested with Kotlin 1.0.

cd kotlin
make
java -jar stepX_YYY.jar

LiveScript

The LiveScript implementation of mal has been tested with LiveScript 1.5.

cd livescript
make
node_modules/.bin/lsc stepX_YYY.ls

Logo

The Logo implementation of mal has been tested with UCBLogo 6.0.

cd logo
logo stepX_YYY.lg

Lua

The Lua implementation of mal has been tested with Lua 5.2. The implementation requires that luarocks and the lua-rex-pcre library are installed.

cd lua
make  # to build and link linenoise.so
./stepX_YYY.lua

Mal

Running the mal implementation of mal involves running stepA of one of the other implementations and passing the mal step to run as a command line argument.

cd IMPL
IMPL_STEPA_CMD ../mal/stepX_YYY.mal

GNU Make 3.81

cd make
make -f stepX_YYY.mk

NASM

The NASM implementation of mal is written for x86-64 Linux, and has been tested with Linux 3.16.0-4-amd64 and NASM version 2.11.05.

cd nasm
make
./stepX_YYY

Nim 0.17.0

The Nim implementation of mal has been tested with Nim 0.17.0.

cd nim
make
  # OR
nimble build
./stepX_YYY

Object Pascal

The Object Pascal implementation of mal has been built and tested on Linux using the Free Pascal compiler version 2.6.2 and 2.6.4.

cd objpascal
make
./stepX_YYY

Objective C

The Objective C implementation of mal has been built and tested on Linux using clang/LLVM 3.6. It has also been built and tested on OS X using XCode 7.

cd objc
make
./stepX_YYY

OCaml 4.01.0

cd ocaml
make
./stepX_YYY

MATLAB (GNU Octave and MATLAB)

The MatLab implementation has been tested with GNU Octave 4.2.1. It has also been tested with MATLAB version R2014a on Linux. Note that MATLAB is a commercial product.

cd matlab
./stepX_YYY
octave -q --no-gui --no-history --eval "stepX_YYY();quit;"
matlab -nodisplay -nosplash -nodesktop -nojvm -r "stepX_YYY();quit;"
    # OR with command line arguments
octave -q --no-gui --no-history --eval "stepX_YYY('arg1','arg2');quit;"
matlab -nodisplay -nosplash -nodesktop -nojvm -r "stepX_YYY('arg1','arg2');quit;"

miniMAL

miniMAL is small Lisp interpreter implemented in less than 1024 bytes of JavaScript. To run the miniMAL implementation of mal you need to download/install the miniMAL interpreter (which requires Node.js).

cd miniMAL
# Download miniMAL and dependencies
npm install
export PATH=`pwd`/node_modules/minimal-lisp/:$PATH
# Now run mal implementation in miniMAL
miniMAL ./stepX_YYY

Perl 5.8

For readline line editing support, install Term::ReadLine::Perl or Term::ReadLine::Gnu from CPAN.

cd perl
perl stepX_YYY.pl

Perl 6

The Perl 6 implementation was tested on Rakudo Perl 6 2016.04.

cd perl6
perl6 stepX_YYY.pl

PHP 5.3

The PHP implementation of mal requires the php command line interface to run.

cd php
php stepX_YYY.php

Picolisp

The Picolisp implementation requires libreadline and Picolisp 3.1.11 or later.

cd picolisp
./run

PL/pgSQL (Postgres SQL Procedural Language)

The PL/pgSQL implementation of mal requires a running Postgres server (the "kanaka/mal-test-plpgsql" docker image automatically starts a Postgres server). The implementation connects to the Postgres server and create a database named "mal" to store tables and stored procedures. The wrapper script uses the psql command to connect to the server and defaults to the user "postgres" but this can be overridden with the PSQL_USER environment variable. A password can be specified using the PGPASSWORD environment variable. The implementation has been tested with Postgres 9.4.

cd plpgsql
./wrap.sh stepX_YYY.sql
    # OR
PSQL_USER=myuser PGPASSWORD=mypass ./wrap.sh stepX_YYY.sql

PL/SQL (Oracle SQL Procedural Language)

The PL/pgSQL implementation of mal requires a running Oracle DB server (the "kanaka/mal-test-plsql" docker image automatically starts an Oracle Express server). The implementation connects to the Oracle server to create types, tables and stored procedures. The default SQL*Plus logon value (username/password@connect_identifier) is "system/oracle" but this can be overridden with the ORACLE_LOGON environment variable. The implementation has been tested with Oracle Express Edition 11g Release 2. Note that any SQL*Plus connection warnings (user password expiration, etc) will interfere with the ability of the wrapper script to communicate with the DB.

cd plsql
./wrap.sh stepX_YYY.sql
    # OR
ORACLE_LOGON=myuser/mypass@ORCL ./wrap.sh stepX_YYY.sql

Postscript Level 2/3

The Postscript implementation of mal requires ghostscript to run. It has been tested with ghostscript 9.10.

cd ps
gs -q -dNODISPLAY -I./ stepX_YYY.ps

PowerShell

The PowerShell implementation of mal requires the PowerShell script language. It has been tested with PowerShell 6.0.0 Alpha 9 on Linux.

cd powershell
powershell ./stepX_YYY.ps1

Python (2.X and 3.X)

cd python
python stepX_YYY.py

RPython

You must have rpython on your path (included with pypy).

cd rpython
make        # this takes a very long time
./stepX_YYY

R

The R implementation of mal requires R (r-base-core) to run.

cd r
make libs  # to download and build rdyncall
Rscript stepX_YYY.r

Racket (5.3)

The Racket implementation of mal requires the Racket compiler/interpreter to run.

cd racket
./stepX_YYY.rkt

Rexx

The Rexx implementation of mal has been tested with Regina Rexx 3.6.

cd rexx
make
rexx -a ./stepX_YYY.rexxpp

Ruby (1.9+)

cd ruby
ruby stepX_YYY.rb

Rust (1.0.0 nightly)

The rust implementation of mal requires the rust compiler and build tool (cargo) to build.

cd rust
cargo run --release --bin stepX_YYY

Scala

Install scala and sbt (http://www.scala-sbt.org/0.13/tutorial/Installing-sbt-on-Linux.html):

cd scala
sbt 'run-main stepX_YYY'
    # OR
sbt compile
scala -classpath target/scala*/classes stepX_YYY

Scheme (R7RS)

The Scheme implementation of mal has been tested with Chibi-Scheme 0.7.3, Kawa 2.4, Gauche 0.9.5, CHICKEN 4.11.0, Sagittarius 0.8.3, Cyclone 0.6.3 (Git version) and Foment 0.4 (Git version). You should be able to get it running on other conforming R7RS implementations after figuring out how libraries are loaded and adjusting the Makefile and run script accordingly.

cd scheme
make symlinks
# chibi
scheme_MODE=chibi ./run
# kawa
make kawa
scheme_MODE=kawa ./run
# gauche
scheme_MODE=gauche ./run
# chicken
make chicken
scheme_MODE=chicken ./run
# sagittarius
scheme_MODE=sagittarius ./run
# cyclone
make cyclone
scheme_MODE=cyclone ./run
# foment
scheme_MODE=foment ./run

Skew

The Skew implementation of mal has been tested with Skew 0.7.42.

cd skew
make
node stepX_YYY.js

Swift

The Swift implementation of mal requires the Swift 2.0 compiler (XCode 7.0) to build. Older versions will not work due to changes in the language and standard library.

cd swift
make
./stepX_YYY

Swift 3

The Swift 3 implementation of mal requires the Swift 3.0 compiler. It has been tested with Swift 3 Preview 3.

cd swift3
make
./stepX_YYY

Swift 4

The Swift 4 implementation of mal requires the Swift 4.0 compiler. It has been tested with Swift 4.2.3 release.

cd swift4
make
./stepX_YYY

Tcl 8.6

The Tcl implementation of mal requires Tcl 8.6 to run. For readline line editing support, install tclreadline.

cd tcl
tclsh ./stepX_YYY.tcl

TypeScript

The TypeScript implementation of mal requires the TypeScript 2.2 compiler. It has been tested with Node.js v6.

cd ts
make
node ./stepX_YYY.js

VHDL

The VHDL implementation of mal has been tested with GHDL 0.29.

cd vhdl
make
./run_vhdl.sh ./stepX_YYY

Vimscript

The Vimscript implementation of mal requires Vim 8.0 to run.

cd vimscript
./run_vimscript.sh ./stepX_YYY.vim

Visual Basic.NET

The VB.NET implementation of mal has been tested on Linux using the Mono VB compiler (vbnc) and the Mono runtime (version 2.10.8.1). Both are required to build and run the VB.NET implementation.

cd vb
make
mono ./stepX_YYY.exe

WebAssembly (wasm)

The WebAssembly implementation is written in Wam (WebAssembly Macro language) and runs under several different non-web embeddings (runtimes): node, wasmtime, wax, wace, warpy.

cd wasm
# node
make wasm_MODE=node
./run.js ./stepX_YYY.wasm
# wasmtime
make wasm_MODE=wasmtime
wasmtime --dir=./ --dir=../ --dir=/ ./stepX_YYY.wasm
# wax
make wasm_MODE=wax
wace ./stepX_YYY.wasm
# wace
make wasm_MODE=wace_libc
wace ./stepX_YYY.wasm
# warpy
make wasm_MODE=warpy
warpy --argv --memory-pages 256 ./stepX_YYY.wasm

Yorick

The Yorick implementation of mal was tested on Yorick 2.2.04.

cd yorick
yorick -batch ./stepX_YYY.i

Running tests

The top level Makefile has a number of useful targets to assist with implementation development and testing. The help target provides a list of the targets and options:

make help

Functional tests

The are over 600 generic functional tests (for all implementations) in the tests/ directory. Each step has a corresponding test file containing tests specific to that step. The runtest.py test harness launches a Mal step implementation and then feeds the tests one at a time to the implementation and compares the output/return value to the expected output/return value.

  • To run all the tests across all implementations (be prepared to wait):
make test
  • To run all tests against a single implementation:
make "test^IMPL"

# e.g.
make "test^clojure"
make "test^js"
  • To run tests for a single step against all implementations:
make "test^stepX"

# e.g.
make "test^step2"
make "test^step7"
  • To run tests for a specific step against a single implementation:
make "test^IMPL^stepX"

# e.g
make "test^ruby^step3"
make "test^ps^step4"

Self-hosted functional tests

  • To run the functional tests in self-hosted mode, you specify mal as the test implementation and use the MAL_IMPL make variable to change the underlying host language (default is JavaScript): ``` make MAL_IMPL=IMPL "test^mal^step2"

e.g.

make "test^mal^step2" # js is default make MAL_IMPL=ruby "test^mal^step2" make MAL_IMPL=python "test^mal^step2"


### Starting the REPL

* To start the REPL of an implementation in a specific step:

make "repl^IMPL^stepX"

e.g

make "repl^ruby^step3" make "repl^ps^step4"


* If you omit the step, then `stepA` is used:

make "repl^IMPL"

e.g

make "repl^ruby" make "repl^ps"


* To start the REPL of the self-hosted implementation, specify `mal` as the
  REPL implementation and use the `MAL_IMPL` make variable to change the
  underlying host language (default is JavaScript):

make MAL_IMPL=IMPL "repl^mal^stepX"

e.g.

make "repl^mal^step2" # js is default make MAL_IMPL=ruby "repl^mal^step2" make MAL_IMPL=python "repl^mal"


### Performance tests

Warning: These performance tests are neither statistically valid nor
comprehensive; runtime performance is a not a primary goal of mal. If
you draw any serious conclusions from these performance tests, then
please contact me about some amazing oceanfront property in Kansas
that I'm willing to sell you for cheap.

* To run performance tests against a single implementation:

make "perf^IMPL"

e.g.

make "perf^js"


* To run performance tests against all implementations:

make "perf"


### Generating language statistics

* To report line and byte statistics for a single implementation:

make "stats^IMPL"

e.g.

make "stats^js"


## Dockerized testing

Every implementation directory contains a Dockerfile to create
a docker image containing all the dependencies for that
implementation. In addition, the top-level Makefile contains support
for running the tests target (and perf, stats, repl, etc) within
a docker container for that implementation by passing *"DOCKERIZE=1"*
on the make command line. For example:

make DOCKERIZE=1 "test^js^step3"


Existing implementations already have docker images built and pushed
to the docker registry. However, if
you wish to build or rebuild a docker image locally, the toplevel
Makefile provides a rule for building docker images:

make "docker-build^IMPL" ```

Notes:

  • Docker images are named "kanaka/mal-test-IMPL"
  • JVM-based language implementations (Groovy, Java, Clojure, Scala): you will probably need to run this command once manually first make DOCKERIZE=1 "repl^IMPL" before you can run tests because runtime dependencies need to be downloaded to avoid the tests timing out. These dependencies are downloaded to dot-files in the /mal directory so they will persist between runs.

License

Mal (make-a-lisp) is licensed under the MPL 2.0 (Mozilla Public License 2.0). See LICENSE.txt for more details.